Evolution and Development of Non Profit Organisations In India: India has an ancient history of society based upon the concept of philanthrophy. Vedas, a large body of texts originating in ancient India are the earliest bibles of Hinduism. The Rig Veda, one out of the four Vedas, describes some components of collective social entrepreneurship which manifested in the kind of charity as a duty and obligation of a mindful human being. Throughout the reign of the Mauryas and Guptas (fourth century BC to fifth century ADVERTISEMENT) and even later on, a strong village neighborhood based on cumulative entrepreneurship and social collectiveness remained in presence throughout the country. These practices of philanthrophy and a strong and collective neighborhood life changed into the modern idea of social capital.
The word “ charity” went into the English language through the Old French word “charité” which was derived from the Latin word ” caritas” Initially in Latin the word caritas indicated preciousness, dearness, high cost. From this, in Christian faith, caritas ended up being the standard Latin translation for the Greek word agape, indicating a limitless loving-kindness to all others, such as the love of God. Agape was not primarily about good works and providing to the poor, although in English the word ‘charity’ has gradually obtained this as its main significance, in which it was initially used in Old French a minimum of considering that the year 1200 A.D.
Though the roots of charity are to be discovered in religion and practice, charitable trusts and voluntary organizations are India’s secular and institutional manifestation. India has a long history of civil society. Voluntary companies were active in cultural promo, education, health, and natural catastrophe relief as early as the medieval period. Spiritual organizations likewise used up work to help the bad to improve their condition.
Towards completion of the 19 th century the business community in India also started setting up organizations dedicated to the welfare and development of the impoverished and a large number of Corporate Trusts and Societies originated.
During the 19 th and early 20 th century these voluntary organizations received legal recognition as the Federal government enacted different laws such as the Societies Registration Act of 1860, The Religious Endowments Act of 1863, The Indian Trusts Act of 1882 and the Charitable Endowments Act of1890 Such enactments gave public recognition to the objective of the creators and extended the protection of the law to their earnings and home, however these enactments were rather moderate and did not impose strong regulatory controls. The British Federal government later included two more legislations i.e. the Charitable and Spiritual Trusts Act, 1920 and (ii) the Trade Unions Act, 1926.
The Income Tax had actually been presented in 1860, and in 1922, the federal government approved 50% tax exemption to people on contributions for charitable functions. The Federal government of independent India continued and extended the tax concessions provided earlier just to individuals, to companies making charitable contributions. The Earnings Tax Act of 1961 further broadened the definition of charitable purpose. Section 2(15) of the Act specifies the expression “charitable purpose”.
All Charitable companies may exist as non-profit companies, societies or trusts. Structure or management is not the essence of the charitable organization. It is the goals, which distinguish a charitable company from a business organization.
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- PAN Card Application for Charitable Trust
- Charitable Trust Introduction and Registration
- Registration of Area 8 Company
- Corpus Fund
- PAN Card
- List of All Earnings Excused from Income Tax
Author– Dr. Rajkumar Adukia
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