AS 20 Earning Per Share (Accounting Standard 20 – EPS) with Illustration

AS 20 Earning Per Share (Accounting Standard 20 – EPS) with all Illustration. Recently we provide various another accounting standards and we provide Links for other accounting Standard in recommended articles. Now you can scroll down below and check complete details for AS 20 Earning Per Share

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AS 20 Earning Per Share

  • Applicable to CFS
  • Potential Equity Share is a Financial Instrument
  • Example of Potential Equity Share
    • Convertible Debt instruments or preference shares into equity  shares;
    • Share warrants;
    • Options – ESOP; and
    • Contingently issuable shares
  • Present basic and diluted EPS, even if the amounts disclosed are negative (loss per  share).

Basic EPSNet Profit After Tax (-) Preference Dividend [+ Tax on Divd] / Weighted Avg. No. of Equity Shares O/s during the Period

  • NPAT is After Prior Period Item & Extraordinary Item as per AS 5
  • Does not  include  any  preference dividends paid or declared during the current period  in  respect of previous periods.
  • Weighted Avg. No. of Equity Shares O/s during the Period
01.01.2011 Opening Balance [Nos.] 1800
31.05.2011 Issue of Shares for Cash [Nos.] 600
01.11.2011 Buy Back of Shares [Nos.] 300
31.12.2011 Closing Balance [Nos.] 2100

Computation of Weighted Average:

(1,800 X 12/12) + (600 X 7/12) – (300 X 2/12) = 2,100 shares.

Time Weighting Factor [Relevant Dates for Weight]

Equity Shares Issued Relevant Date
As Exchange For Cash Date of Cash Receivable
As a Result of Conversion of Debt Date of Conversion
In Exchange for a Settlement of Liability Date on Which Settlement becomes Effective
Bonus Shares Beginning of Reporting Period
As Part of Consideration in an Amalgamation Nature of

  • Merger
  • Nature of Purchase
  • Beginning of Year
  • Date of Acquisition
For Rendering Service to the Enterprise Date of Service Rendered
In Lieu of Int./ Principal on other Financial Instrument Date of Interest Ceases to Accrue
For Acquisition of an Asset Date of Acquisition Recognised

Partly paid shares are entitled to participate in the dividend to the extent of amount paid

Date Particulars No. of Shares Issued Nominal Value Amt. Paid
01.01.2011 Opening Balance 1800 10 10
31.10.2011 Issue of Shares 600 10 5

Computation of weighted average would be as follows: (1,800×12/12)  + ([600×5/10] x2/12) = 1,850 shares

  • If enterprise has more than one class of equity shares, net P/L is apportioned over the different classes of  shares as per their dividend  rights.
  • Equity shares of different nominal values but with the same dividend rights = Number of equity shares is calculated by converting all such equity shares into equivalent number of shares of the same nominal value.
  • Weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period and for all  periods  presented  should be adjusted for events, that have changed the number of equity shares outstanding, without a corresponding change in  resources [other than the conversion of potential equity shares].

⇓ Examples

  • Bonus issue;
  • Bonus element in any other issue [Eg. Rights  issue];
  • Share split; and
  • Reverse share split (consolidation of shares).

Bonus Issue or Share Split

Issued to existing shareholders for no additional consideration. Number of  shares  outstanding  is  increased  without increase in resources. Number of equity shares outstanding before the  event  –  Adjusted  as if the event  had occurred at the beginning of the earliest period   reported.

Net profit for the year 2010 18,00,000
Net profit for the year 2011 60,00,000
No. of equity shares outstanding until 30.09.2011 20,00,000
Bonus Issue 01.10.2011 2 shares for each share outstanding at 30.09.2011 20,00,000 x 2 = 40,00,000
EPS for the Year 2011             60,00,000           = Rs.1.00 20,00,000 + 40,00,000
*Adjusted EPS for the Year 2010 [beginning  of  earliest  period reported]             18,00,000           = Rs.0.30 20,00,000 + 40,00,000

Bonus Considered only for Calculating Adjusted EPS – Not for Basic EPS for Earlier Period

Rights Issue

  • Conversion of potential equity shares – No Bonus Element – issued for full  value
  • In Rights Issue – Exercise price less than fair value of shares – includes bonus  element
  • Number of equity shares used in calculating basic EPS for all periods PRIOR to rights issue is the number of equity  shares  outstanding prior to issue, multiplied by the following   factor:
AS 20 Earning Per Share

A = Fair Value [Market Price] of ALL Shares O/s Immediately BEFORE Exercise of Rights B = Total Amount Received From Exercise of Right

C = No. of Shares Outstanding PRIOR to Rights Offer D = No. of Shares Issued in Exercise of Rights

Computation of EPS

Calculating Diluted EPS

Diluted EPS = Net Profit Available for Equity Shares [After Adjustment of Diluted Earnings] / Wtd. Avg. of Sh. O/s during the period [Assuming Conversion of diluted Potential Eq. Sh. [DPES]]

Calculation of Diluted Earnings

NPAT for Equity Shareholders xxxx
Add : Preference Dividend as Adjusted for Tax [Divd + Tax] xxx 
Add : Interest on Convertible Debentures net of Tax [Int – Tax] xxx 
Less : *Income that will Cease to Accrue on Conversion of DPES into ES as adj. for Tax (xxx) 
Net Profit available for DPES xxxx 
*Expenses will be added

Addition in No. of Shares

DPES should be deemed to have been converted into equity shares at the Beginning of the Period OR if issued Later, Date of Issue of PES.

Share application money pending allotment or any advance  share  application  money  as  at the  balance  sheet date, which is not statutorily required to be kept separately and is being utilised in the business of the enterprise, is treated in the same manner as DPES for the purpose of calculation of diluted EPS.

Contingently  Issuable Shares [CIS]

  • Issuable upon satisfaction of certain conditions resulting from contractual
  • Included in the computation of both BASIC  EPS  AND  DILUTED  EPS  from  the  date  when  the  conditions under a contract are
  • If conditions not met, for computing DILUTED EPS, CIS are included as of the beginning of the period or as of  the date of contingent share agreement, if [If Conditions not met then do not include CIS in Basic EPS]
  • Restatement is not permitted if conditions are not met when contingency period actually expires subsequent to the end of the reporting period. This provisions apply equally to PES that are issuable upon the satisfaction    of certain conditions (contingently   issuable PES).

Options and other share purchase arrangements Dilutive when they would result in the issue of equity shares for less than fair   value.

Net profit for 2011 12,00,000
Weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during 2011 5,00,000 shares
Average fair value of one equity share during 2011 20.00
Weighted average number of shares under option during 2011 1,00,000 shares
Exercise price for shares under option during 2011 15.00
Earnings Shares EPS
Net profit for the year 20X1 12,00,000
Weighted average number of shares outstanding during year 20X1 5,00,000
Number of shares under option 1,00,000
Number of shares that would have been issued at fair value: (100,000 x 15.00)/20.00 (75,000)
DILUTED EPS 12,00,000 5,25,000 2.29
Dilutive Potential Equity Shares

Dilutive Potential Equity Shares

  • Dilutive when & only when, their conversion to equity shares would decrease net profit per share from continuing ordinary operations.
  • Net profit per share from continuing ordinary  operations.
Net Profit from Ordinary Activity [As per AS 5] xx
(-) Preference Dividend [Incl. Tax] (xx)
(-) Items Relating to discontinued Operations  [AS 24] (xx)
  • Anti-dilutive when their conversion to equity shares would increase EPS or decrease loss per share. Effects of anti-dilutive potential equity shares are ignored in calculating diluted  
  • In order to maximise dilution of basic  EPS, each series  of potential  equity shares is  considered  in sequence from the most dilutive to least  dilutive.
  • For determining the sequence = Earnings per incremental potential equity  share is calculated.
  • Where earnings per incremental share is the least, Potential equity share is considered most
Earnings, i.e., Net profit attributable to equity shareholders 1,00,00,000
No. of equity shares outstanding 20,00,000
Average fair value of one equity share during the year 75.00
Potential Equity Shares
Options 1,00,000 with exercise price of 60
Convertible Preference Shares

Attributable tax, e.g., corporate dividend tax

8,00,000 shares entitled to a cumulative dividend of 8 per share. Each preference share is convertible into 2 equity shares.


12% Convertible Debentures of 100 each Nominal amount 10,00,00,000. Each debenture is convertible into 4 equity shares.
Tax rate 30%

Increase in Earnings Attributable to Equity Shareholders on Conversion of Potential Equity Shares

Options are most dilutive as their earnings per incremental share is nil. Options will be considered first. 12% convertible debentures being second and convertible preference shares will    be third.

Increase in Earnings Increase in no. of Equity Shares Earnings per Incremental Share
Increase in earnings Nil
No. of incremental shares issued   for   no consideration {1,00,000 x (75 – 60) / 75} 20,000 Nil
Convertible Preference Shares
Increase in net profit attributable to equity shareholders as adjusted by tax [(Rs.8 x 8,00,000)+ 10% (8 x 8,00,000)] 70,40,000
No. of incremental shares {2 x 8,00,000} 16,00,000 4.40
12% Convertible Debentures
Increase in net profit {Rs.10,00,00,000 x 0.12 x (1-0.30)} 84,00,000
No. of incremental shares {10,00,000 x 4} 40,00,000 2.10

Conversion of Diluted Earnings Per Shares

  Net Profit Attributable No. of Equity Shares Net profit attributable Per Share
As reported 1,00,00,000 20,00,000 5.00
Options                        20,000
1,00,00,000 20,20,000 4.95 Dilutive
12% Convertible Debentures 84,00,000 40,00,000
1,84,00,000 60,20,000 3.06 Dilutive
Convertible Preference Shares 70,40,000 16,00,000
2,54,40,000 76,20,000 3.34 Anti- Dilutive

Diluted EPS increased when taking convertible preference shares (from 3.06 to 3.34) – Convertible preference shares are anti-dilutive and are ignored in calculating diluted EPS. Therefore, Diluted EPS is 3.06.

  • Potential equity shares that cancelled or allowed to lapse during the reporting period  –  included  in  computing diluted EPS only for the portion of the period during which they were outstanding.
  • Potential equity shares that converted into equity shares during the reporting period – included in the calculating diluted EPS from the beginning of the period to the date of conversion;
  • From the date of conversion, Resulting equity shares are included in computing both basic and diluted EPS.


  • Calculation of basic and diluted EPS should be adjusted for all the periods  presented.
  • If changes  occur  after  balance  sheet  date  but  before  date  when financial statements are approved by  BOD – per share  calculations adjusted for all the periods    presented.
  • Enterprise is encouraged to provide description of equity share transactions or potential equity share transactions, OTHER THAN  – 1. Bonus Issue Share Split & 2. Reverse Share Split

Which occur after the balance sheet date. Examples of such transactions include    :

  • Issue for cash;
  • Issue to use proceeds to repay debt or preference shares outstanding at the balance sheet  date;
  • Cancellation of equity shares outstanding at the balance sheet  date;
  • Conversion of potential equity shares, outstanding at the balance sheet   date;
  • Issue of warrants, options or convertible securities;  and
  • Satisfaction of conditions that result in issue of contingently issuable shares

EPS not adjusted for such transactions occurring after balance sheet  date  because  such  transactions  do  not affect the amount of capital used to produce the net profit or loss for the    period.Satisfaction of conditions that result in issue of contingently issuable shares.

Only Transaction Mentioned in Para 44 will be Adjusted

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Jigz Vira

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